*Matrix positive includes all birds that tested ‘not negative’ by PCR for one or more Influenza A viruses. The number of positive test results included both those birds that tested POSITIVE (Ct value less than 36) and those that had an INCONCLUSIVE test result (Ct value greater than or equal to 36).
Any samples found to be matrix POSITIVE or INCONCLUSIVE are then tested by PCR for H5 and H7 strains at the regional level. Any samples that are then found to be either H5 or H7 POSITIVE or INCONCLUSIVE are immediately sent to the NCFAD for confirmation and identification. Authorities from the province or region where the bird was sampled will be notified when preliminary H5 or H7 positive results are found at the regional lab. When the CFIA confirms and identifies the virus, authorities from across the country will be notified. This update reports all POSITIVE or INCONCLUSIVE matrix results, but does not report whether or not these samples were found to be H5 or H7 positive.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Tested - The number of birds that were screened for avian influenza virus by real time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) for the M1 gene.
Matrix positive - The number of birds that tested positive for the M1 gene by RRT-PCR.
H5 positive - The number of birds that were confirmed to be positive for the H5 virus subtype by either DNA sequencing or virus isolation.*
H7 positive - The number of birds that were confirmed to be positive for the H7 virus subtype by either DNA sequencing or virus isolation.*
*Where the virus isolation and sequence data disagreed, the final H type was determined by DNA sequencing.
WHY DOES THE CWHC MATTER?
The CWF's mission is to ensure healthy wildlife and marine populations. This would be impossible to achieve without the work of the CWHC. Their expertise and dedication is our first line of defense against wildlife diseases and deserves the support of Canadians.
WADE LUZNY CEO CANADIAN WILDLIFE FEDERATION
Wildlife health is a field of endeavor that is growing in importance as a consequence of the profound impacts of wildlife-associated emerging diseases on human health, the global economy and wildlife management and conservation. The Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative is a true leader and the contributions it has made to these challenges are immeasurable and lasting.
Jonathan Sleeman Director US National Wildlife Health Centre
The CWHC provides a necessary and vital service to Canadians which is quite unique in the world. Having a robust, credible, accessible wildlife health
diagnostic service staffed by expert veterinarians, biologists, technicians and researchers provides assurance that Canada will be well positioned to detect and deal with emerging zoonotic disease threats now and into the future.
Todd Shury Wildlife Health Specialist Parks Canada
Since its inception, the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative has been an invaluable partner in advancing our understanding of wildlife health in Canada. For front line wildlife health programs in territorial, provincial and federal agencies, the expertise and services provided by the CWHC have gone a long way in supporting our efforts both individually and collectively. By focusing attention at the wildlife, domestic animal and human health interface, the CWHC is helping bring together a wide range of stakeholders to consider health issues that are of interest to all of us.
In an increasingly complex, interconnected and interdependent world, the value and importance of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative has never been more apparent, never been more critical. The community of competencies, knowledge and collaboration that comprise the CWHC are fundamental to understanding, interpreting, anticipating, preparing and responding to the social and economic consequences that continue to emerge at the interface between ecosystem health, animal health and human health.